A Review on Non-Invasive Nanoparticle Interfaces for Brain Stimulation

Outline of Paper

1. Abstract

2. Introduction

3. Understanding How to Trigger an Action Potential

4. The Relationship Between Calcium and Action Potentials

5. The Issues with Deep Brain Stimulation

6. Principles of Neural Stimulation with Nanoparticles

References

7. Quantum Dot Optogenetic Stimulation

How the Stimulation Works

Experiment and Results

References

8. Magneto-Thermal Stimulation

Drawn to scale diagram of coated (orange) superparamagnetic nanoparticles (grey) in a magnetic field (B~) and heat (red) activated opening of the TRPV1 channel (labelled).

How the Stimulation Works

Experiment and Results

References

9. Magneto-Electric Stimulation

How the Stimulation Works

Experiment and Results

References

10. Upconverting Nanoparticle Optogenetic Stimulation

How the Stimulation Works

Experiment and Results

References

11. Infrared Photo-Thermal Nanorod Stimulation

A: Visualization of gold nanorods under a TEM microscope. B: Visualisation of gold nanorods with silica coatings under a TEM microscope.

How the Stimulation Works

Experiment and Results

Data displaying action potentials fired in response to this stimulation.
Average temperature increase in relation to pulse length of the lasers.

References

12. Magneto-Mechanical Nanoparticle Stimulation

How the Stimulation Works

Experiment and Results

References

13. Note on Carbon Nanotube Microelectrode Stimulation

References

14. Obstacles

References

15. Best Method — Personal Opinion

Chart evaluating each aspect of the different approaches of nanoparticle neural stimulation

References

16. Conclusion

--

--

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store
Aahaan Maini

16-year-old ML dev currently building Circulate to tackle the blood shortage in India