A Review on Non-Invasive Nanoparticle Interfaces for Brain Stimulation

Outline of Paper

1. Abstract

2. Introduction

3. Understanding How to Trigger an Action Potential

Understand that the action potential is not just the peak (at +40 mV), but rather the entire process that follows once the threshold is hit.

4. The Relationship Between Calcium and Action Potentials

5. The Issues with Deep Brain Stimulation

6. Principles of Neural Stimulation with Nanoparticles

References

7. Quantum Dot Optogenetic Stimulation

How the Stimulation Works

Experiment and Results

Quantum-Dot Light stimulation has successfully been proven in vitro to achieve action potentials through depolarization, which is primarily through interaction with the K+ and Na+ channels.

References

8. Magneto-Thermal Stimulation

Drawn to scale diagram of coated (orange) superparamagnetic nanoparticles (grey) in a magnetic field (B~) and heat (red) activated opening of the TRPV1 channel (labelled).

How the Stimulation Works

Experiment and Results

References

9. Magneto-Electric Stimulation

How the Stimulation Works

Experiment and Results

References

10. Upconverting Nanoparticle Optogenetic Stimulation

How the Stimulation Works

Experiment and Results

However, this is still promising as it shows that photon upconversion by UCNPs is possible through thick brain tissue from NIR light applied externally.

References

11. Infrared Photo-Thermal Nanorod Stimulation

A: Visualization of gold nanorods under a TEM microscope. B: Visualisation of gold nanorods with silica coatings under a TEM microscope.

How the Stimulation Works

Experiment and Results

Data displaying action potentials fired in response to this stimulation.
Average temperature increase in relation to pulse length of the lasers.

References

12. Magneto-Mechanical Nanoparticle Stimulation

How the Stimulation Works

Experiment and Results

References

13. Note on Carbon Nanotube Microelectrode Stimulation

References

14. Obstacles

References

15. Best Method — Personal Opinion

Chart evaluating each aspect of the different approaches of nanoparticle neural stimulation

References

16. Conclusion

15-year-old Nanotechnology enthusiast whose mission is to use technology to solve real-world problems.